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古玩城2019精品推荐第12期:鹰洋币

墨西哥银圆又叫做“墨银”或“鹰洋”,后讹为“英洋”。 1521年,西班牙殖民者占领了墨西哥,并于1535年在美洲设立了包括墨西哥与美国南部总共450万平方公里的第一个总督辖区,称之为“新西班牙总督区”。西班牙殖民者征服墨西哥后,曾试图使用西班牙银币。但是,他们很快发现,西班牙银币完全不能满足这个庞大的殖民地的需求。同时,为了便于把殖民地的贵金属运往宗主国,西班牙王室决定在殖民地设立造币厂。1535年,根据西班牙国王卡洛斯5世(Carlos V)的旨令,新西班牙总督区在征服者首领科尔特斯宅邸附近(现墨西哥城市中心宪法广场西侧)建立了美洲第一家造币厂。由于当时主要铸造银币,因此,开采和提炼的银子越来越多,铸币业一度成为当时最有活力的产业。

The Mexican Silver Circle is also called "Mo Yin" or "Yingyang", which is later falsely called "Yingyang". In 1521, Spanish colonists occupied Mexico, and in 1535, they established the first viceroy in America, including Mexico and the south of the United States, totaling 4.5 million square kilometers, called the "new Spanish Viceroy". After the Spanish colonists conquered Mexico, they tried to use Spanish silver coins. However, they soon found that Spanish silver coins could not meet the needs of this huge colony at all. At the same time, the Spanish royal family decided to set up a mint in the colony in order to facilitate the transportation of precious metals from the colony to the suzerain. In 1535, according to the decree of Carlos V, the governor of New Spain established the first Mint in America near the residence of Cortez, the conqueror leader (West of the constitutional square in the city center of Mexico). Since silver coins were mainly minted at that time, more and more silver was mined and refined, and the mint industry once became the most dynamic industry at that time.

 

【藏品名称】:鹰洋币

[collection name]: Yingyang coin

【类别】:钱币

Class: Coins

1810年,墨西哥独立后,仍然铸造、流通以里亚尔为单位的银币及金盾。直到1823年,独立战争结束2年以后,墨西哥铸造的8里亚尔银币上开始刻上墨西哥国徽上雄鹰的图案。1863年,墨西哥开始采用十进位制的硬币,并开始流通。19世纪末,8里亚尔的银币被1比索代替,但是,基本特征,尤其是雄鹰的图案保留下来。

After Mexico's independence in 1810, silver coins and gold shields were still minted and circulated in rials. It was not until 1823, two years after the end of the war of independence, that the silver coin of 8 rials struck in Mexico began to bear the design of the eagle on the national emblem of Mexico. In 1863, Mexico began to use decimal coins and began to circulate them. At the end of the 19th century, the silver coins of 8 rials were replaced by 1 peso, but the basic features, especially the design of the eagle, remained.

1840年,鸦片战争后,中国沦为半封建半殖民地社会,英美等帝国主义国家乘机在中国设立银行,利用发行纸币、银元等方式对我国的进行经济侵略,而墨西哥、西班牙等一些资本主义国家也不甘落后,远洋而来,抢占和瓜分中国市场。当时流入中国的外国银元英国的“杖洋”、日本的“龙洋”等。而流入中国最多的银元是西班牙的“本洋”,后来才是墨西哥的“鹰洋”。

In 1840, after the Opium War, China was reduced to a semi feudal and semi colonial society. Britain and the United States and other imperialist countries took the opportunity to set up banks in China and made economic aggression against China by issuing notes, silver dollars and other means. However, some capitalist countries, such as Mexico and Spain, were not willing to lag behind and came from afar to seize and carve up the Chinese market. At that time, foreign silver dollars flowed into China, such as "stick ocean" of Britain and "dragon ocean" of Japan. The largest inflow of silver into China was the Spanish "Benyang" and later the Mexican "Yingyang".

 

此枚鹰洋币,银元正面是一张翅雄鹰,嘴叼长蛇(蛇尾与鹰翅相连),单腿立在仙人掌(国花)上,边缘上方书西班牙文“REPUBLICAMEXICANA(墨西哥共和国)”。钱币背面中央钤有一顶帽,帽周围放射长短不一的32支光柱(代表全国31个州和1个联邦区),自由帽顶部的3支光柱中间一支较短。自由帽下边缘有11支光柱。边缘下半方分别铸有1个装饰“五角星”、“8R”、字母“M”、“1867”(铸造年分),此钱币包浆入骨,品相上乘,乃不可多得之珍品。

On the obverse of the silver dollar is a winged eagle with a long snake in its mouth (the tail of the snake is connected with the wings of the Eagle). It stands on a cactus (national flower) with one leg. On the top of the edge is the Spanish "republicana". On the back of the coin, there is a cap with 32 light pillars (representing 31 states and 1 Federal District) of different lengths around the cap, and one of the three light pillars on the top of the free cap is shorter. There are 11 light columns on the lower edge of the free hat. In the lower half of the margin, there is a decorated pentagram, 8R, m and 1867 (the year of casting). The coins are of high quality and are rare.

 

古代印第安阿兹特加人受到部落神的启示,在雄鹰叼着蛇,站在仙人掌上的地方建立家园。直到现在,墨西哥铸造的所有硬币上都刻着这样的国徽图案。当时,带有雄鹰图案的银币,由于成色极佳,流入中国后,成为市场通货,民间称之为“鹰洋”。“鹰洋”的传奇故事,不仅表现了墨西哥的铸币艺术,更重要的是人类之间友好往来的一个例证。铸币史,其实是一个国家、民族的文化的一部分,也是人类文明的重要组成部分。

Inspired by the tribal gods, the ancient aztecans built their homes in the place where Eagles held snakes and stood on cacti. Until now, all coins made in Mexico have such a national emblem on them. At that time, silver coins with Eagle pattern became the market currency after entering China due to their excellent quality, which was called "Yingyang" by the people. The legend of "Yingyang" not only shows the coinage art of Mexico, but also an example of friendly exchanges between human beings. The history of coinage is actually a part of the culture of a country and a nation, and also an important part of human civilization.

 

 

 

 

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